Agglomeration of population and employment in the urbanization - industrialization interaction: The case of Izmir


  • Emine Yetiskul image/svg+xml Middle East Technical University

    Dr. Emine Yetişkul received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in city and regional planning from Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture in 1995 and 1998, respectively. She earned her Ph.D. degree in civil engineering (transportation systems and network economics) from Kyoto University, Graduate School of Engineering in 2005. She carried out post-doctoral studies at the University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Transportation Studies. Between 1997-2001 and 2008-2010 she worked as a city planner at the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, General Directorate of Technical, Research and Implementation. Started to work as a faculty member in METU, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning in 2010, she is currently Professor of City Planning. Her major research interests include transportation systems, urban and regional economics, city and regional planning.

  • Fahrettin Kul image/svg+xml Karadeniz Technical University

    Mr. Fahrettin Kul graduated from Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning in 2018. He completed his master's degree in regional planning at Middle East Technical University, Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences. His major research interests include urban transportation, regional geography and city planning. He is currently research assistant at Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning.



clustering, population and employment change, settlement pattern, agglomeration economies


As production and economic activities shaped the growth of cities during the pre-industrial era, they are still the most important factors explaining modern urbanization. Economic restructuring is being reshaped with agglomeration economies, bringing spatial restructuring with it. Regional economic growth, emergence of new centers and production foci are formed in the equilibria of positive and negative externalities of agglomeration. Positive externalities do not arise solely from internal economies of scale related to factors of production such as easy accessibility in the region. It also results from external economies of scale, including economies of localization and urbanization. On the other hand, as cities grow the attractiveness of large agglomeration and advantages of economies of scale decrease. Negative externalities in the larger agglomerations may eventually lead to decreasing returns to scale in cities. Economic view of regional science and geography considers cities maintaining equilibrium between two competing forces, i.e., centripetal forces (agglomeration) and centrifugal forces (dispersion). This study examines recent agglomeration and dispersion processes in the settlement pattern from the relationship between urbanization and economic growth. To do so, we take Izmir as a case and use general explanatory variables such as population and employment.  Specifically, we investigate spatial agglomeration in the Izmir city region and metropolitan area by using population and employment data of 2009 and 2019. Based on empirical results, we discuss new sub-regions, urban centers, and clustering that emerged due to economies of scale as well as positive and negative externalities of agglomeration.


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How to Cite

Yetiskul, E., & Kul, F. (2023). Agglomeration of population and employment in the urbanization - industrialization interaction: The case of Izmir. Journal of Design for Resilience in Architecture and Planning, 4(1), 16–30.



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